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Chapter 3. Records and Encoding Schemas

Chapter Outline

  • Introduction

  • Cataloging Records

  • Major Sources of Cataloging Copy

  • Online Cataloging

  • Online Cataloging Activities

  • Record Structure

  • MARC Formats and Other Encoding Standards

  • MARC-Related, XML-Based Formats 

  • BIBFRAME

Key Takeaways

This chapter discusses sources of cataloging records, introduces the reader to record structures, and provides a brief overview of different encoding systems used for cataloging and metadata records. 

Cooperation & sharing

Cooperation and resource description data sharing have been introduced in the field of library cataloging in North America in the early 1900s. Library cataloging initially took the form of copy cataloging and continues today via networks, such as OCLC and the Library of Congress, or by making records available as open linked data. MARC records can also be harvested or downloaded from OCLC WorldCat (membership), the Library of Congress via Z39.50 services, and linked data records from any library open linked data services, using an Application Programming Interface (API).

Library traditions & the semantic web

Recording description data using encoding systems is necessary for machine processing and sharing of the data. Library-specific encoding systems such as MARC require databases and retrieval systems designed specifically for libraries. Encoding systems using XML- and RDF-based schemas can be used by systems designed for the universal information environment and the semantic web. The decisions of which encoding schema is used can affect the interoperability, sharing of data between institutions, systems, and domains, and data re-use.

Chapter References/Notes

  1. Library of Congress. (1974–1983). Library of Congress name headings with references. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.

  2. Library of Congress. (n.d.) MARC distribution services (data set). Retrieved from https://www.loc.gov/cds/products/marcDist.php

  3. Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC). (n.d.). About the PCC. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/about/

  4. Kilgour, F. G. (1977). Ohio College Library Center. In A. Kent, H. Lancour, & J. E. Daily (Eds.), Encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 20, pp. 346–347). New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.

  5. OCLC. (2022). History of the OCLC research library partnership. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/partnership/history.html

  6. OCLC. (2022). Partners support libraries and WorldCat growth. Retrieved from https://www.oclc.org/en/worldcat/partners.html

  7. Library of Congress. (2000). MARC 21 specifications for record structure, character sets, and exchange media. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/marc/specifications/spechome.html

  8. OCLC. (n.d.) OCLC-MARC records: Record structure. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/support/worldcat/documentation/records/subscription/1/1.pdf

  9. Avram, H. D. (1975). MARC: Its history and implications. Washington, DC: Library of Congress; Crawford, W. (1989). MARC for library use: Understanding integrated USMARC. Boston, MA: G. K. Hall & Co. (pp. 203–241).

  10. MARC Development Office, Library of Congress. (1974). Information on the MARC system (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Library of Congress (p. 1).

  11. American National Standards Institute. (1971). American national standard format for bibliographic information interchange on magnetic tape (ANSI Z39.2-1971). New York, NY: ANSI, 1971; current edition: National Information Standards Organization. (2014). Information interchange format (ANSI/ NISO Z39.2-1994 [R2009]). Retrieved from http://www.niso.org/apps/group_public/download.php/12590/z39-2-1994%28r2009%29.pdf

  12. International Organization for Standardization. (1973). Documentation: Format for bibliographic information interchange on magnetic tape: ISO 2709. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization; current edition: International Organization for Standardization. (2011). Information and documentation: Format for information exchange: ISO 2709:2008. Geneva, Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.

  13. Attig, J. (1982, June). The USMARC formats—Underlying principles. Information Technology and Libraries, 1(2), 169–174.

  14. Library of Congress, Library and Archives Canada, National Library of Canada, & British Library. (1999- ). MARC 21 format for bibliographic data: Including guidelines for content designation. Washington, DC: Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress.

  15. Crawford, W. (1989). MARC for library use: Understanding integrated USMARC. Boston, MA: G. K. Hall & Co. (pp. 221–222).

  16. Library of Congress & National Library of Canada. (1999). MARC 21 format for authority data: Including guidelines for content designation. Washington, DC: Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress.

  17. Library of Congress & National Library of Canada. (2000). MARC 21 format for classification data: Including guidelines for content designation. Washington, DC: Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress.

  18. Library of Congress, Library and Archives Canada, British Library, & National Library of Canada. (2000). MARC 21 format for holdings data: Including guidelines for content designation. Washington, DC: Cataloging Distribution Service, Library of Congress.

  19. Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (2012). MARC 21 concise formats. Retrieved from https://www.loc.gov/marc/concise/ and https://www.loc.gov/marc/marc-docz.html

  20. W3C. (2016, October 11). Extensible markup language (XML). Retrieved from www.w3.org/XML/

  21. Ebenezer, C. (2003). Trends in integrated library systems. VINE, 32(4), 19–45.

  22. Harold, E. R., & Means, W. S. (2004). XML in a nutshell (3rd ed.). Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly (pp. 4, 6).

  23. Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (n.d.). MARCXML: MARC 21 XML schema. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml/

  24. Library of Congress. (2022, February 2). MARCXML Schema & Documentation. Retrieved from www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml/

  25. Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (n.d.). MODS: Metadata object description scheme. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/

  26. Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (2016). MADS: Metadata authority description schema. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/standards/mads/

  27. Library of Congress. (2012, November 21). Bibliographic framework as a web of data: Linked data model and supporting services. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/bibframe/pdf/marcld-report-11-21-2012.pdf

  28. Bibliographic Framework Initiative. (n.d.). BIBFRAME.org. Retrieved from http://bibframe.org/

  29. Library of Congress. (n.d.). Bibframe frequently asked questions. Retrieved from https://www.loc.gov/bibframe/faqs/

  30. Library of Congress. (2019, December 9). PCC and the BIBFRAME model. Retrieved from https://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/documents/bibframe-pcc.html/

  31. Bibliographic Framework Initiative. (n.d.). BIBFRAME.org tools. Retrieved from http://bibframe.org/tools/

 

Additional Readings

Here, you will find readings specific to the contents of this chapter.

You may find more readings about similar topics on the Cataloging and Classification Web Resources page

Online Cataloging
  • Calhoun, K., Cantrell, J., Gallagher, P., and Hawk, J. (2009). Online catalogs: What users and librarians want. OCLC. Retrieved from https://www.oclc.org/content/dam/oclc/reports/onlinecatalogs/fullreport.pdf
  • Wiederhold, R.A. and Reeve, G.F. (2021). Authority control today: Principles, practices, and trends." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 59(2-3), 129-158, DOI: 10.1080/01639374.2021.1881009 
​Bibliographic Formats

Tools & Standards
  • Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (n.d.). BIBFRAME. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov /bibframe/

  • Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (2022, April 7). MARC standards. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/marc/

    • Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (2007, December 4). MARC 21 specifications for record structure, character sets, and exchange media. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/marc/specifications/

    • Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (2008, April 24). MARC 21 lite bibliographic format. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/lite/

    • Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (2012, April 13). MARC records, systems and tools. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/marc/marcservice .html

    • Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (2022, July 7). MARC 21 format for classification data. Retrieved from http://www.loc gov/marc/classification/

    • Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (2022, July 7). MARC 21 format for authority data. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/marc/authority/

    • Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (2022, July 7). MARC 21 format for bibliographic data. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/

    • Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (2022, July 7). MARC 21 format for holdings data. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/marc/holdings/

  • Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (2022, February 1). MADS: Metadata Authority Description Schema. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/standards/mads/

  • Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (2022, February 2). MARCXML: MARC 21 XML schema. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml/

  • Network Development and MARC Standards Office, Library of Congress. (2022, June 28). MODS: Metadata Object Description Schema. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/standards /mods/

  • WC3. (2012, April 5). W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 Part 1: Structures. Retrieved from https://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema11-1/

  • WC3. (2014, February 25). Resource Description Framework (RDF). Retrieved from https://www.w3.org/RDF/

Cataloging Record Sources 

Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC)
  • Bishoff, L. & Patton, G.E. (2020). "The PCC and OCLC: Some reflections on 45 years of cooperation." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 58(3-4), 209-216, DOI: 10.1080/01639374.2019.1691695

  • Danskin, A. (2020). "The Anglo-American authority file: A PCC Story." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 58(3-4), 221-229, DOI: 10.1080/01639374.2019.1705952

  • Lorimer, N. (2020). "Cultivating the cooperative: PCC, the Music Library Association, and the Music OCLC Users Group." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 58(3-4), 361-374, DOI: 10.1080/01639374.2019.1702604

  • Naun, C.C. (2020). "Expanding the use of linked data value vocabularies in PCC cataloging." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 58(3-4), 449-457, DOI: 10.1080/01639374.2019.1705953

  • Shieh, J. (2020). "PCC’s work on URIs in MARC." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 58(3-4), 418-427,DOI: 10.1080/01639374.2019.1705951

  • Stalberg, E., et al. (2020). "Exploring models for shared identity management at a global scale: The work of the PCC Task Group on identity management in NACO." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 58(3-4), 428-437, DOI: 10.1080/01639374.2019.1699880

  • Thomas, S.E. (2020). "The Program for Cooperative Cataloging: Backstory and future potential." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 58(3-4), 190-203, DOI: 10.1080/01639374.2019.1699621

  • Wolven, R. (2020). "From council to program: Creating the Program for Cooperative Cataloging." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 58(3-4), 204-208, DOI: 10.1080/01639374.2019.1701599

Linked Data
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